Remember, you have the power to determine the kind of treatments you want to receive and the kind of treatments you want to avoid. Whether you’re just getting started on this journey of understanding your choices and making a plan, or you’ve been clear for a while, we encourage you to take time to review the options below and discuss with your physician so you can feel secure about your choices now and in the future.

Life Sustaining Treatments

CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) – is used when someone’s heart or breathing stops and includes chest compressions and rescue breathing and is considered an emergency life- saving procedure. Review our education guide on CPR for more information.

Artificial hydration/nutrition – is used to sustain life when someone can no longer eat or drink on his or her own. A tube is placed directly into the stomach, intestine or vein to provide an adequate amount of nutrition and hydration for life. This is often referred to as a feeding tube. Review our education guide on Artificial Hydration & Nutrition for more information.

There can be significant emotional burdens tied to the decision to insert a feeding tube. There can also be physical issues associated with having a feeding tube, especially for those who may be within their last few weeks of life or have dementia. Learn more about the benefits and possible complications of artificial hydration/nutrition on WebMD.

Defibrillator practice on a CPR in the ER room ** Note: Soft Focus at 100%, best at smaller sizes

Intubation/mechanical ventilation – is a life-sustaining procedure that entails inserting a tube into the windpipe to provide a way to get air into the lungs artificially through a breathing machine. Some of the complications associated with mechanical ventilation include infection, lung damage, and side effects of the medications given for sedation. Please discuss more with your physician about mechanical ventilation.  Review our education guide on Help with Breathing for more information.

Medications (including antibiotics) – emergency medications are often given by medical professionals to assist with CPR efforts to sustain life. Antibiotics are medications given to fight infections. Some people opt to have antibiotics but not emergency medications. The choice is yours and should be discussed with your physician.

Dialysis – is needed when a person’s kidneys stop functioning to the point that toxins build up inside the body. Dialysis helps to remove these toxins. Dialysis is usually required on a frequent basis and may be associated with side effects of low blood pressure, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Ask your physician to explain more about dialysis. Read more about kidney dialysis at WebMD.

In-Patient Hospital Care

Close up of oncologist holding hand of girl with leukemia

According to recent research, many people prefer the comfort of their own home when seriously ill and near the end of life. However, others feel more comfortable in the hospital setting knowing that medical technology and professionals are readily available to care for them.

Limited Medical Treatment
Some people may choose not to have aggressive life-sustaining treatments at the end of their lives, but opt for limited medical treatment to treat their disease, such as chemotherapy or antibiotics.

Managing Pain and Mental Well-Being through Palliative Care

Pain Control

Most chronic pain can be eliminated or reduced to a level that is minimal, or at least tolerable. Controlling pain, however, often requires the expert, thoughtful use of strong medications, like anti-seizure medications, anti-depressants, and "opioids." Examples of opioids include codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, morphine, and fentanyl. Opioids can have undesirable side effects, such as constipation, drowsiness, confusion, slowing the rate of breathing, and even death. Higher doses are associated with more side effects. Therefore, opioids must be used carefully under the close supervision of an experienced physician or advanced practice professional. Patients, families and health professionals must work together to weigh the benefits of such medications, such as relief of pain, against their possible side effects. The goal should be to use such medications to help each individual patient attain the quality of life that he or she desires.

Palliative Care

Palliative care can be provided in conjunction with curative medical treatments. Often people say that they want to limit pain and discomfort if they become very ill.

One of the options for managing a chronic, debilitating illness is through palliative care which focuses on providing patients relief from symptoms such as pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, constipation, nausea, loss of appetite, difficulty sleeping and depression among many others.  The goal of palliative care is to improve a patient’s quality of life. It is important to ensure mental and emotional health is being addressed when someone is very sick or living with a chronic illness.

Comfort Care and Hospice Care

Helping hands, care for the elderly concept

As one nears their end of life, it is important to understand the importance of being comfortable, not just physically, but also emotionally, mentally and spiritually. To learn more about comfort care when someone is dying visit National Institute on Aging.

Hospice is a concept of care designed to provide comfort and support to patients and their families with a life-limiting illness. Hospice is patient and family-centered care, typically associated with care in the last six months of a person’s life.

The goal of hospice care is to improve the quality of a patient’s last days by offering comfort and dignity and by addressing all symptoms of a disease, with a special emphasis on offering relief from pain and suffering. Hospice care neither prolongs life nor hastens death.

The care is provided by an interdisciplinary team of specially trained professionals and volunteers who provide support for the patient and their family. Hospice services are provided on an intermittent basis, but services are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to provide support and care to patients and family members and is sensitive to the patient’s personal, cultural and religious values, beliefs and practices. Hospice addresses the emotional, social and spiritual impact of the disease on the patient and the patient’s family and friends. Hospice offers a variety of bereavement and counseling services to families before and after a patient’s death.

More information specific to hospice and palliative care available in Idaho is available.
To learn more about National Hospice and Palliative Care –

For more information, contact Idaho Quality of Life Coalition, which advocates for advanced planning education and excellence in hospice and palliative care.


POST (Physician Orders for Scope of Treatment)

The Idaho POST is a one-page document designed to help health care professionals (doctors, nurses, emergency medical services, long-term care/nursing home staff) and family members understand a person’s goals for care and to honor the treatment wishes of that person. The POST form is a short summary of treatment preferences and a physician’s order for care that is easy to read in an emergency situation. The POST form is not intended to replace a Health Care Directive/Advanced Directive document (living will or durable power of attorney for health care) or other physician orders.

To learn more about the differences and similarities of and Advance Directive and the POST, please review our Education Guide (AD vs. POST)

Do Not Resuscitate Orders (DNR)

This is an order written by the doctor to direct medical professionals to not initiate CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) should a person stop breathing or heart stops. It is an order you choose should an emergency arise and you do not want to have resuscitation. This order only applies to CPR and does not apply to medications or other treatments. Learn more about Do Not Resuscitate Orders from the Visit National Institutes of Health.

Questions to Ask Your Health Care Provider


Sometimes not knowing where to start or what to ask your health care provider can be daunting. As with all care decisions, it’s important to discuss your options – including risks and benefits — with your physician.

Here are a few questions to consider:

• What are the side effects?
• What affect will this treatment have on my quality of life?
• What are the infection rates?
• Will I be able to spend time with my family if I have this treatment?
• How much time will I be able to spend at home versus in a care setting with proposed treatment?

Organ Donation FAQ

Organ Donation FAQ: Download (PDF)